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The effects of 49 elements on steel

May 23, 2024

The effects of 49 elements on steel performance can be summarized as follows:

  1. Carbon (C): Increases hardness and strength but reduces ductility.
  2. Manganese (Mn): Improves toughness and hardness, and aids in deoxidizing.
  3. Silicon (Si): Enhances strength and elasticity, and deoxidizes.
  4. Phosphorus (P): Increases strength and hardness but reduces toughness.
  5. Sulfur (S): Improves machinability but reduces toughness and ductility.
  6. Nickel (Ni): Adds toughness, corrosion resistance, and strength.
  7. Chromium (Cr): Improves hardness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance.
  8. Molybdenum (Mo): Enhances strength, hardness, and resistance to wear and corrosion.
  9. Vanadium (V): Increases strength, toughness, and wear resistance.
  10. Tungsten (W): Improves hardness, wear resistance, and high-temperature strength.
  11. Cobalt (Co): Adds strength and hardness at high temperatures.
  12. Copper (Cu): Improves corrosion resistance and adds strength.
  13. Aluminum (Al): Aids in deoxidizing and grain refinement.
  14. Boron (B): Enhances hardenability and strength.
  15. Nitrogen (N): Increases strength and hardness but can reduce ductility.
  16. Titanium (Ti): Improves strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance.
  17. Zirconium (Zr): Enhances strength and grain refinement.
  18. Niobium (Nb): Adds strength, toughness, and wear resistance.
  19. Tantalum (Ta): Increases strength and corrosion resistance.
  20. Hafnium (Hf): Improves strength and high-temperature stability.
  21. Calcium (Ca): Enhances machinability and deoxidizing.
  22. Magnesium (Mg): Improves machinability and strength.
  23. Lead (Pb): Improves machinability but is toxic.
  24. Arsenic (As): Adds strength but is toxic and brittle.
  25. Antimony (Sb): Enhances strength and hardness but is toxic.
  26. Tin (Sn): Improves corrosion resistance and hardness.
  27. Bismuth (Bi): Enhances machinability.
  28. Cadmium (Cd): Adds corrosion resistance but is toxic.
  29. Selenium (Se): Improves machinability.
  30. Tellurium (Te): Enhances machinability.
  31. Zinc (Zn): Adds corrosion resistance.
  32. Gallium (Ga): Enhances high-temperature stability.
  33. Germanium (Ge): Improves strength and toughness.
  34. Indium (In): Increases strength and toughness.
  35. Thallium (Tl): Adds corrosion resistance.
  36. Yttrium (Y): Enhances strength and grain refinement.
  37. Lanthanum (La): Improves strength and high-temperature stability.
  38. Cerium (Ce): Adds strength and deoxidizing properties.
  39. Praseodymium (Pr): Enhances strength and toughness.
  40. Neodymium (Nd): Improves strength and toughness.
  41. Samarium (Sm): Adds high-temperature strength.
  42. Europium (Eu): Enhances strength and toughness.
  43. Gadolinium (Gd): Improves strength and high-temperature stability.
  44. Terbium (Tb): Adds strength and toughness.
  45. Dysprosium (Dy): Enhances strength and high-temperature stability.
  46. Holmium (Ho): Improves strength and toughness.
  47. Erbium (Er): Adds strength and high-temperature stability.
  48. Thulium (Tm): Enhances strength and toughness.
  49. Lutetium (Lu): Improves strength and high-temperature stability.

These elements each contribute unique properties to steel, enhancing its performance for various applications.